Please respond to the following post with a long paragraph, add citations and references.
Child abuse and neglect is a difficult subject to think about, but it is one that we as caregivers must be prepared to address. For most of us, it’s hard to imagine anyone harming a child but it is real. According to Jarvis (2016), in 2011 approximately 677,000 children in the United States were determined by Child Protective Services to been maltreated. Of these children, approximately 79% were neglected, 18% were physically abused, 9% were sexually abused, and 10% were victims of other types of maltreatment (Grand Canyon University, 2018). Warning signs for the school-age children could be a sudden change in the child’s behavior, the child is more withdrawn and watchful of surroundings. The child may come to school early and leave late, not wanting to go home.
Physical assessment findings can include unexplained burns, bites, bruises, broken bones, black eyes or various bruises with different stages of healing. Signs of emotional abuse include changes in behavior, overly compliant, demanding behavior or extreme aggression. The child shows delayed development physically and emotionally and is suicidal. (What is Child Abuse, 2013). Another factor to consider is the developmental history of the school-aged child including their gross motor skills. Children at this age run, jump, climb and ride bicycles (Jarvis, 2016).
In addition, there are cultural practices that can be misidentified as child abuse. For example, the use of cupping, which is a common practice within East Asian and Eastern European countries involving the use of a ceramic cup turned upside down with a candle underneath which is believed to draw out aggravating substances (McIntyre & Silva, 1992). Another example is the use of coining, which is rubbing a coin on an afflicted area. The result is it leaves a mark and skin abrasions (McIntyre & Silva, 1992).
The reporting mechanism in the state of New Jersey is every person is a mandatory reporter including nurses. If there is any knowledge of reasonable suspicion that a child is abused or neglected then local law enforcement, the Children, Youth and Families Department, Tribal Law Enforcement or Social Services should be notified.
Grand Canyon University (Ed). (2018). Health assessment: Foundations for effective practice. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs434vn/health-assessment…
Jarvis, Carolyn (2016). Physical Examination and Health Assessment, 7th Edition. Missouri: Elsevier
McIntyre, T. & Silva, P. (1992). Beyond Behavior, Volume 4, issue 1, pages 8-12. Retrieved from http://www.behavioradvisor.com/C-ChildAbuse.html/ https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubpdfs/whatiscan.pdf