Answer the following question: In chapter 3 of the text, review the “Evidence-based Practices for Children and Youth with ASD” table. Based on the list, discuss three practices that you think are the most valuable and explain why.
Respond to student discussions:
(Monica )The three practices that I feel are the most valuable for ASD students in the classroom are prompting, positive reinforcement and visual supports.
Prompting is a step process for educators to use to help students learn and to become more independent in daily activities. The prompting sequence is full physical, partial physical, modeling, gestural, verbal and independent and the goal work towards having students at the independent stage. Teachers will work with students and fade as time goes on to decrease the number of prompts that a student needs to complete tasks. I feel that prompting is important for educators to use because many ASD students can become dependent on having a teacher â€œhelpâ€ them and when the prompting sequence is utilized, they can learn to become more self-sufficient in the classroom.
Positive reinforcement can go hand in hand with prompting by rewarding the student when they are completing tasks and becoming more independent. Positive reinforcement is a way of positively rewarding students for good behavior and academics. Everyone needs motivation to work and positive reinforcement is a great way to do this. First the teacher should do a preference assessment and find out what the students are interested in and then use the results are a basis for setting up the reinforcements, like for example, if the student likes cars, then when they complete a task, they can play with cars. Students are more willing to comply and work and have good behavior when they are motivated with items that interest them.
Visuals are a must in classrooms that serve students with Autism. They need to know what is coming next in the day and what is expected of them and teachers need to make sure that the visuals are displayed around the classroom. When teachers use visual schedules, first then boards, social stories and expectations written out in picture form, the students have those visuals to refer to and look back on when the need arises and there is less stress throughout the day which leads to compliance and better days for students and teachers.
(Michelle) If I had to pick just three evidenced-based interventions or practices that I feel are the most valuable in treating autism spectrum disorder (ASD) I would have to choose the functional behavior assessment (FBA), naturalistic intervention, and pivotal response training (PRT). Every student is different and has a different antecedent, behavior, and consequence (ABC) associated with their behavior. Understanding the function of the behavior (FBA) is the first step into developing an individualized evidence-based intervention. After the FBA is completed the best course of action is to choose an intervention that incorporates the studentâ€™s natural environment and the ASD studentsâ€™ natural interest such as a Naturalistic Intervention. Embedding interventions in a studentâ€™s natural environment help the student generalize the skills being taught (Tuchman-Ginsberg, n.d.). The next intervention that accompanies Naturalistic Intervention is Pivotal Response Training. Pivotal Response Training targets pivotal behaviors that once learned produces corresponding modifications that can be adapted to other targeted behaviors (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2019).
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2019). Applied Behavior Analysis (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.
Tuchman-Ginsberg, L., (n.d.). Naturalistic Intervention. Retrieved from https://asdtoddler.fpg.unc.edu/book/export/html/252
(Elim) Every student with ASD is different and the dynamics of every classroom will be different. The list of Evidence-Based Practices for Children and Youth with ASD is a great list and there are several that I find valuable for the students I teach. I teach students with moderate to severe disabilities and those with ASD are on the â€œsevereâ€ end of the spectrum. Theyâ€™re non-verbal, low measurable cognitive function, and exhibit aggressive behavior. There are others that are valuable as well but not all my students with ASD respond to those strategies. However, the 3 listed below is used with all students in my moderate to severe self-contained class. The three I find most valuable is 1) Antecedent-based interventions, 2) Functional Behavior Assessment, and 3) Naturalistic Intervention. Antecedent-based interventions is important for our students and classroom team. Many times, weâ€™re required to be one step ahead of the students and address the antecedents before the situation becomes an undesired behavior. Addressing antecedent needs requires a functional behavior assessment sometimes. Even if not a formal assessment, going through the steps of a functional behavior assessment really helps in identifying the antecedent, behavior, and consequences to determine the appropriate intervention and support. Naturalistic intervention requires a lot of intentional intervention in natural settings. It requires the full attention of a staff to implement but is effective for our students who don’t necessarily learn from being pulled aside for a talk or understand conventional school consequences such as a phone call home or a missed recess. Implementing intervention in natural settings is our best tool in teaching appropriate behavior and responses and extinguishing undesirable ones.
Read “General Education Teachers Need to Be Prepared to Co-Teach the Increasing Number of Children with Autism in Inclusive Settings,” by Loiacono and Valenti, from International Journal of Special Education (2010).
Read “School Factors that Facilitate or Hinder the Ability of Teaching Assistants to Effectively Support Pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) in Mainstream Secondary Schools,” by Symes and Humphrey, from the Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs (2011).