homework questions 23

Many steps have been taken to enhance information sharing between homeland security partners, such as fusion centers and the Protected Critical Infrastructure Information program. How these relate to the private sector will serve as this week’s focus.

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Pick one answer to reply to as your main post response, and then reply to 2 classmates who answered the other question.

2. In Network Fusion: Information and Intelligence Sharing for a Networked World, the author discusses (pages 8-11) the five competitive forces that shape strategy for business. Focusing upon the first of these, offer specific examples of how a privately owned business can be both a supplier and consumer of information; efforts that can have a direct impact upon homeland security intelligence and information sharing initiatives.


U.S. Department of Justice. (2008). Baseline capabilities for state and major urban area fusion centers: A supplement to the fusion center guidelines. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.

National Fusion Center Association. (2014). 2014-2017 National Strategy for the National Network of Fusion Centers. Washington, D.C.

State and Major Urban Area Fusion Centers (n.d.). Department of Homeland Security web site. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/state-and-major-urban-area-fusi…

American Civil Liberties Union. (2007). What’s Wrong With Fusion Centers? Washington, D.C.

Forum Grading Rubric: Answers the forum question(s) with a relevant, coherent and scholarly initial forum response (>250 words) 20/20; demonstrates lesson comprehension in forums with no more than 10% of content as direct quotes 15/15; employs complete and proper APA in-text parenthetical citations of the required readings for this week 10/10; responses to two classmates initial forum answers (>100 words each) 20/20; quality answer to professor follow-up question 20/20, main forum has APA reference list at end of forum (including the required readings) 5/5; reads and acknowledges professors end of week wrap up forum 10/10.

Note: your primary forum post answering the assigned question for the week is due on Thursday by 1155PM EST, and per the syllabus you can lose up to 5 points per day for late work.

Instructions: Craft your main forum answer is like a short paper directly answering the topic of the week with a well written response that fully utilizes the required readings for the week with at least 250 words. Focus only on the assigned question(s) in a scholarly manner using in-text citations from the required readings (save your personal experiences and opinions for your four forum replies in any given week). Each sentence quoting or paraphrasing any ideas or information from any source must be cited properly including the author and year of publication. Do not cite the APUS lessons — they are just basic information to start the week off and is not meant to be a primary source for you to reference in your reply (to receive full credit you must utilize and cite the listed required readings for that week). If directly quoting from the readings (or other scholarly sources), you must also include the page or paragraph number that you are quoting from like (Hoffman, 2006, p.7) or for articles and sources without pages (Renner, 2016, para.15). If you are directly quoting and there is no page number to cite, then you manually count the paragraphs and cite that number. You also need to have an APA style reference list at the end of your post listing the sources employed. For more on APA citations and reference lists see the APUS Style Guide for APA. You must first provide your own initial forum answer before replying to any classmates or the professor. The four replies of the week are more of a free flowing classroom discussion which offers you an opportunity to leverage your relevant personal experiences and express your thoughts and opinions. Respond to at least two other students initial forum answers with a minimum of 100 words each. In your replies to classmates you may offer your opinion on the topic of the week, substantially support or supplement another student’s answer, or even politely disagree with or challenge their forum answer (but do not ask your classmates questions, or do so only as a last resort per the forum philosophy). You will also reply to my follow up question in your own forum string, and also read and acknowledge the Professor wrap up forum I post toward the end of the week. Also, do not be afraid to respectfully disagree with the readings or a classmate where you feel appropriate; as this should be part of your analysis process and employing critical thinking and academic freedom. Forum posts are graded based on demonstrated knowledge of the lesson and weekly readings, relevance, timeliness, as well as clarity and quality of analysis and synthesis. Sources utilized to support answers are to come from the weekly readings, but other credible and scholarly sources may be used to supplement (but not replace) the assigned readings. However, dictionaries, encyclopedias and Wikipedia are not scholarly and are not acceptable sources in college level work. Do not use non-scholarly open websites as sources for your reply to the main forum answer. All forum work must be completed within the academic week. When replying to the main forum answer make sure to include your name in the “topic title” of your initial forum answer/response.

Student #1 Lester

The Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) program was developed to address the concerns of the private sector in regards to the sharing of information related these sites and their associated operations. Concerning this program, what are the parts or features of this program that are effective in addressing the private sector’s concerns related to liability and protection of proprietary information?

Good evening everyone,

In order to stop terrorism or any acts of crime, lessons learned from recent history would indicate information sharing is necessary. Information dissemination cannot be achieved unless trust worthy relationships are formed with leaders of the private sectors and the government. In a lesson summary by FEMA, the Assistant Secretary for the Office of Infrastructure Protection suggests the following:

“Public private partnerships are so important because nobody can do this alone.
DHS can’t do it alone. The Federal Government can’t do it alone. The State governments, the sports leagues – can’t do it themselves” (FEMA, n.d.).

However, with regards to Critical Infrastructure Information distribution it can be understood why the private sectors are selective and more importantly concerned as to what is actually shared. Now, if all critical information were to be public then it would not be so important. As such, this where the Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) program becomes so vital. The purpose of the PCII is to protect essential information from the public and at the same time team up with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as well as federal, state, tribal, and the local government (DHS, n.d.). This end state will be achieved by doing the following according to the DHS:

– Analyze and secure critical infrastructure and protected systems.
– Identify vulnerabilities and develop risk assessments.
– Enhance recovery preparedness measures.

Private sectors can be confident in the PCII program due to established standards they ust follow in accordance with the CII Act of 2002 (DHS, n.d.). Additionally, only a select few (trained and certified) group of individuals from the U.S. government are authorized to use PCII (DHS, n.d.). The world today continues to be more ambiguous with regards to deterring crime and terrorism. As a result, information must be shared with the right programs and people. The PCII program can provide this avenue.

Respectfully submitted,



Department of Homeland Security. (n.d.). Protected Critical Infrastructure Information. Retrieved from https://www.us-cert.gov/pcii

Department of Homeland Security. (n.d.). Using and Sharing Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII). Retrieved from https://www.dhs.gov/using-sharing-pcii

FEMA. (n.d.). Lesson Summary. Retrieved from https://emilms.fema.gov/is921/CIPP0102summary.htm


  1. The Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) program was developed to address the concerns of the private sector in regards to the sharing of information related these sites and their associated operations. Concerning this program, what are the parts or features of this program that are effective in addressing the private sector’s concerns related to liability and protection of proprietary information?


One of the biggest concerns that any private sector company in today’s world is protecting themselves from liability in civil court. We have seen several court cases that have cost a company millions of dollars in lost revenue do to a law suit, not to mention the cost of legal fees and lawyers needed in such actions. Because of the amount of risk that is assumed by the private sector when they share security information that is critical to their company’s infrastructure, the public sector must do everything within its power to gourd that information from getting out into the public arena (Homeland Security Advisory Council, 2005). To fail at this will bring about a state where the private sector will not trust the Government.

To this end, The Protected Critical Infrastructure Information program protects the private industry by protecting the information that they share in good faith. In section 214 of the Critical Infrastructure Information Act of 2002 specifically talks about that fact that government agencies will not share this information with the public at large. This includes requested information the Freedom of Information Act (Stevens, 2003). This act means that the private sector can release information to government agencies at the national, state and local levels without fear that the information will be used against then. The use of information in not only in the liability realm but also criminal realm. By limiting private information being released, we ensure that the criminals, including terrorist, cannot gain information about critical infrastructures by simply requesting it. This is very important in securing the private industries cooperation in helping to protect the nation from attack.

Hope everyone had a great Labor day.



Stevens, G. (2003). Homeland Security Act of 2002: Critical Infrastructure Information Act. Congressional Research Service. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office.

Homeland Security Advisory Council. (2005). Homeland security information sharing between government and the private sector. Washington, D.C., 1-8.

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