Using your annotated bibliography from Week 2, write a 3-4 page literature review.
Many peer-reviewed academic journal articles contain a literature review section. Research to find and read several of these. The literature review is not a listing of abstracts or simple paraphrasing. If your introduction and literature review are combined, ensure that each specific point in establishing the importance of your topic is supported by citations of proper sources. The points you are emphasizing are a reflection of the research and findings that you have developed around your chosen topic. Your ultimate paper is your own perspective, and in your literature review you are assembling related research to support your own work.
- Using your annotated bibliography from Week 2, conduct a literature review of your selected sources.
- Your literature review should be 3â€“4 pages in length.
Remember to use APA style for all references and citations.
Week 2 annotated bibliography:
Annotated Bibliography: Criminology: Understanding Criminal Justice
Anderson, J. M., Buenaventura, M., & Heaton, P. (2019). The Effects of Holistic Defense on Criminal Justice Outcomes. Harvard Law Review, 132(3), 820â€“893.
In this peer-reviewed article, the authors provide an empirical evaluation on indigent defense, particularly focusing on the things that work on the criminal justice system. Using a quasi-experimental research design, the authors examine data covering over a million cases to estimate the effect of case outcome and offenders. The finding of this research suggests that improving the criminal justice system, especially the defense function, could help alleviate the current problem in the criminal justice system.The paper highlights the importance of having a good defense system at all levels because this is the only way justice can be attained.
Lofstrom, M., & Raphael, S. (2016). Crime, the Criminal Justice System, and Socioeconomic Inequality. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 30(2), 103â€“126. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.30.2.103
Lofstrom and Raphael, the public policy experts in the University of California, examine the principle sources of crime data in the United States seeking to determine the inequality data that existing in criminal victimization. In this article, the authors document research and statistical data on minority communities from the 1990s and compared it to the current incarceration rates among this community. The authors conclude that while the crime rates among the minority communities have significantly declined for the last four decades, the incarceration rates continue to increase.The author, therefore, contradicts with Anderson et al. authors that the reason for increased incarceration rates in the United States is a weak defense system.
MATZ, A. K. (2018). Community Corrections and the Health of Criminal Justice Populations. Journal of Health & Human Services Administration, 41(3), 348â€“383
In this article, Matz examines the adult correctional population recent statistics, mostly focusing on the trend of the incarceration. In particular, the article provides an overview of health issues from other scholarly sources and their association with the correctional population and the key barrier that often affect justice in the criminal justice system. The article provides a different conclusion on how to reduce criminal incarceration rates. Precisely, the author notes that substance abuse is the main reason the correctional communities increase incarceration rates in the justice system. Therefore, substance abuse treatment should be the primary means of reducing criminal behavior and reducing incarceration rates.
Natapoff, A. (2019). The High Stakes of Low-Level Criminal Justice. Yale Law Journal, 128(6), 1648â€“1704
Natapoff, the professor of law at the University of California reviews key contribution of scholarly discourse on misdemeanors and the misdemeanor process in the light of the democratic challenges in the U.S criminal justice system. In this book, the authors offer a perspective by demonstrating how misdemeanor crimes are significantly contributing to the current injustice in the justice system. Precisely, the author shows how reducing higher incarceration rates could be achieved by focusing on misdemeanor cases. This supports Anderson, et al. article reviewed above that sound defense system, especially in such cases, could be the cure to the current problem in the justice system.
Lynch, J. (2014). The evolving role of self-report surveys of criminal victimization in a system of statistics on crime and the administration of justice. Statistical Journal of the IAOS, 30(3), 165â€“169. https://doi.org/10.3233/SJI-140820
James Lynch, a law professor and the form chairperson on the department of criminology and criminal justice in Maryland describes the role of victimization surveys on crime statistics and the challenges of technology under different conditions to these statistics. Many statistics of crimes are often produced by different government agencies such as the police or the court. Thus, the author reports that the current statistics are prone to bias, and many crimes are not reported. Thus, the author argues that there could be no viable in reducing current injustice and incarceration rates without building a better institution that preserves the victimization surveys. This article can help demonstrates the importance of having the right figure about crimes in the country before coming up with any recommendations reviewed in the article above.
Pettit, B., & Gutierrez, C. (2018). Mass Incarceration and Racial Inequality. American Journal of Economics & Sociology, 77(3/4), 1153â€“1182. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajes.12241
Pettit and Gutierrez review the radical and ethnic difference that exists in the criminal justice system. As the professor at the University of Texas, Pettit has a decade of experience writing about jails obscures basic and racial inequality while his college is well known for his contribution to the criminal justice system research. In this article, the author shows statistics on rates of incarceration, among all populations groups and ethnic group. The rate of mass incarceration of people does not equally affect all subgroups. In this article, the author explores the reason behind the statistical differences and what could be done to reduce the rates. The article infers that the best way to handle injustices in the criminal justice system is to focus mostly on the group that is highly affected. The recommendation from this article and previously reviewed articles can help come up with better criminal policies and laws that could have a positive impact on the justice system.
Van Cleve, N. G., & Mayes, L. (2015). Criminal Justice Through â€œColorblindâ€ Lenses: A Call to Examine the Mutual Constitution of Race and Criminal Justice. Law & Social Inquiry, 40(2), 406â€“432. https://doi.org/10.1111/lsi.12113
Van Cleve and Mayes examine how race and criminal justice institution depends on each other. However, the author notes that historically, these two institutions have not been more focused on social control than crime control. The authors note that broader criminal justice research over the years have failed to consider race and racism as their primary concern. Race is often relegated as an independent variable which does not impact the criminal justice processes and apparatuses. Essentially, this has led to a lack of understanding of the relationship between race and criminal justice. Therefore, that has been no permanent solution to the increasing racial equality in the criminal justice system. This article supports the previously reviewed article that race is an important aspect that could help alleviate the current issues in the justice system.
Johnson, J. S. (2016). Benefits of Error in Criminal Justice. Virginia Law Review, 102(1), 237â€“283
In this article, Johnson challenges the fundamental precept tracing the error of the criminal justice system in the Anglo-American criminal laws. As a historian and a law professor, Johnson demonstrates why the concept of Blackstone gained prominence and how it led to exclusive penalties such as death sentence.Thus, Johnson reviews why death sentence and other stringent penalties and punishment affect the criminal justice system especially when there is a wrong conviction. The primary argument in this article is that exclusive penalties for many crimes are more costly. Therefore, all people should be given equal opportunity to defend themselves. This argument support Natapoff (2019) earlier argument on the importance of a strong defense system.