Child abuse and maltreatment is not limited to a particular age—it can occur in the infant, toddler, preschool, and school-age years. Choose one of the four age groups and outline the types of abuse most commonly seen among children of that age

Topic 2 DQ 1Abuse can come in many forms. Abuse can be physical, emotional, neglect, or sexual (Prevent Child Abuse America, 2019). Child abuse also include physical, sexual, or psychological abuse, or a combination of any of the three. As part of a comprehensive exam or holistic assessment, nurses must also assess for signs and symptoms of abuse (Faulkner, 2018). Child abuse can happen at any age and it is important that nurses know how to assess in each age group. Child abuse can be emotionally hard for nurses to deal with. They can understand disease and illness and how to assess and treat, but abuse is something they cannot often understand.A common type of abuse seen in infants is physical abuse. Warning signs may include unexplained bruises, scars, cuts, welts and burns in different stages of healing especially to the abdomen, back, tops bottoms of feet. There are also times where there are no visible physical signs of abuse. Bruises should almost never be seen on someone who is non mobile. Non mobile infants (those who can’t move on their own) get bruises only from external sources. Shaken baby syndrome or abusive head trauma is one of the most common forms of physical abuse in an infant. It can result in death or permanent disability. Signs and symptoms may include irritability, poor eating, vomiting, pale or bluish skin, seizures and difficulty staying awake. Child abuse, although unfortunate, is a real problem and it can happen to anyone anywhere. A fractured bone is another common sign of physical abuse but often goes unseen unless the infant has an x-ray.There are several different cultural rituals that can be mistaken for abuse. Cupping (wet or dry) is one ritual that can be misunderstood due to the rings and broken blood vessels it causes bruises when using suction cups. Understanding cultural variations of health practices is important as a nurse because it can be easily misinterpreted as child abuse. Wet cupping also involves cuts to the skin. Cupping is used to decrease inflammation and remove toxins in the body. Cupping is used in the Middle East, Asia, Latin America, and Eastern Europe. In the United States, this technique is practiced primarily by Russian immigrants (Killion, 2017). Coining is another ritual that can be mistaken for child abuse it is a dermabrasion therapy, which involves intense rubbing of the skin is used by Vietnamese, Cambodians, and Laotians to treat a variety of illnesses (Killion, 2017). Coining is an example of an ancient healing practice still being practiced, today. A nurse can expect to see red marks that resemble bruises in the areas that have been scrapped.In my state New York, a report of suspected child abuse, neglect, exploitation or abandonment is a responsible attempt to protect a child. New York law requires certain persons who suspect that a child has received non-accidental injury or has been neglected to report their concerns to 311 in NY city or the New York state central register (SCR)  or local law enforcement . YOU may be a child’s only advocate at the time you report the possibility of abuse or neglect. Children often tell a person with whom they feel safe about abuse or neglect.Respond using 200-300 APA format with references supporting the discussion

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