In what ways do we develop?

LA 255-Life Span Psychology

What are we talking about?

Lifespan development is a scientific approach to understanding human growth and change throughout life

In what ways do we develop?

What are we talking about?

Lifespan development is a scientific approach to understanding human growth and change throughout life

In what ways do we develop?

Physical

What are we talking about?

Lifespan development is a scientific approach to understanding human growth and change throughout life

In what ways do we develop?

Physical

Cognitive

What are we talking about?

Lifespan development is a scientific approach to understanding human growth and change throughout life

In what ways do we develop?

Physical

Cognitive

Social

What are we talking about?

Lifespan development is a scientific approach to understanding human growth and change throughout life

In what ways do we develop?

Physical

Cognitive

Social

Personality

The SCIENTIFIC part

Scientific Method?

Scientific Method

Question

Preliminary Research

Hypothesis

Test Hypothesis

Analyze

Developmental Ranges

Prenatal- before birth

Infancy and Toddlerhood- 0 to 3 years

Preschool- 3 to 6 years

Middle Childhood- 6 to 12

Adolescence- 12 to 20

Young adulthood- 20 to 40

Middle Adulthood- 40 to 65

Late Adulthood- 65 to death

Developmental Ranges

Prenatal- before birth

Infancy and Toddlerhood- 0 to 3 years

Preschool- 3 to 6 years

Middle Childhood- 6 to 12

Adolescence- 12 to 20

Young adulthood- 20 to 40

Middle Adulthood- 40 to 65

Late Adulthood- 65 to death

Some stages are marked by a biological event, like puberty, some are social constructions

Cohort

People born around the same time and place

Similar influences on their development

Historical events

Age

Sociocultural factors (class, ethnicity, subculture)

Non-normative life events

Question for the class

What are some cohort effects on your life? Unique effects on your generation

Change Over Time

Continuous

Gradual over time

Same behaviors in each stage, different abilities

Discontinuous

Change occurs in stages

Behaviors are different in each stage

Critical and Sensitive Periods

Critical Period- a time during development when a particular event has a severe consequence

Sensitive Period- a time when an organism is particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in the environment

The optimal period for particular capacities to emerge

Hippocrates and his humors

Imbalance of humors (bodily fluids) leads to dysfunctional behavior

Blood- upbeat, positive

Phlegm- apathy

Yellow Bile- aggression, irritability

Black Bile- melancholy, sadness

Nature v Nurture

It’s not a debate anymore your textbook is a liar

It’s both

Theoretical Perspectives on Lifespan Development

Psychodynamic

Freud

Erikson

Behavioral

Watson

Skinner

Cognitive

Piaget

Humanistic

Rogers

Maslow

Contextual

Bronfenbrenner

Vygotsky

Evolutionary

Darwin

Sigmund Freud

Inner forces, intrapsychic events, guide motivation and behavior

Id

Pleasure Principle

Ego

Reality principle

Superego

Conscience

Freud’s Psychosexual Development

Oral 0 to 12 months

Oral 0 to 12 months

Anal 12 to 18 months-3 years

Freud’s Psychosexual Development

Oral 0 to 12 months

Anal 12 to 18 months-3 years

Phallic 3 to 5 or 6 years

Freud’s Psychosexual Development

Freud’s Psychosexual Development

Oral 0 to 12 months

Anal 12 to 18 months-3 years

Phallic 3 to 5 or 6 years

Latent 6 to adolescence

Freud’s Psychosexual Development

Oral 0 to 12 months

Anal 12 to 18 months-3 years

Phallic 3 to 5 or 6 years

Latent 6 to adolescence

Genital Adolescence to adulthood

Erik Erikson

Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt

Initiative vs. Guilt

Industry vs. Inferiority

Identity vs. Role confusion

Intimacy vs. Isolation

Generativity vs. Stagnation

Integrity vs. Despair

Trust vs. Mistrust

0-1 year

1-3 years

3-6 years

6-11 years

Adolescence

Young adulthood

Middle Adulthood

Late Adulthood

Behavioral Perspective

Classical Conditioning- John Watson

Operant Conditioning- B.F. Skinner

Operant Conditioning

Rewards and Punishments

Positive Reinforcement

Negative Reinforcement

Punishment

Operant Conditioning

Positive = add something

Negative = take something away

Reinforcement = increases chances behavior will be repeated

Punishment = decreases the chances behavior will be repeated

Social-Cognitive Learning Theory

Albert Bandura

Observe behavior of another

Recall behavior accurately

Mimic behavior accurately

Must be motivated for the reward

Cognitive Perspective

Jean Piaget

Theory of Cognitive Development

Schemas

Assimilation vs. Accommodation

Stages

Sensorimotor (0-2 yrs)

Preoperational (2-7 yrs)

Concrete Operational (7-11 yrs)

Formal Operational (Adolescence – Adulthood)

Humanistic Perspective

People are in control of their lives and decision making process

Emphasis on Free Will

Carl Rogers

Abraham Maslow

Carl Rogers

Unconditional Positive Regard- we need it

Self-worth is dependent on how others treat us

Abraham Maslow

Hierarchy of Needs

Contextual Perspective

Individuals don’t exist in a vacuum

Urie Bronfenbrenner

Lev Vygotsky

Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model

Vygotsky

Theory of Sociocultural Development

Evolutionary Perspective

Darwin’s Origin of Species

We develop for survival

 

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Identify three ethical challenges you might face in working with your hypothetical clients

Imagine that you are a professor teaching a psychology ethics course and you have to decide on a hypothetical case that you will use to educate your students for a couples and family therapy learning module.

In the case analysis, please include the following information:

  • Describe a hypothetical couple or family (choose one) and the issues and concerns one or the other brings to you.
  • Identify three ethical challenges you might face in working with your hypothetical clients.
  • Describe the APA guidelines corresponding with each and how you would safeguard against ethics violations.

The paper should be 5 to 6 pages, and include a minimum of 3 scholarly resources.

 

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How do you think your situation will change upon graduating from college?

Achieving Work–Life Balance

Thanks to the ever-increasing wireless connectivity, the boundary between work and personal life is constantly thinning. A new term “weisure” describes the increasing tendency to continue to work during leisure time (Patterson, 2009). Examples include reading work e-mail while spending time with the family and answering work-related cell phone calls during a leisure outing. This trend, according to Patterson, is partly due to the increasing enjoyment of work but also due to the difficulty faced in establishing clear boundaries between work and leisure time. This difficulty is magnified by the increase in the average number of hours in the workweek for many in the workforce and multiple roles. Many are parents, spouses, partners, employees, and caregivers to elderly parents and also engaged in continued education.

Whether you decide to enter the workforce directly upon graduation or attend graduate school, you will be faced with the challenge of juggling multiple roles and maintaining a balance. You will also be attempting to prove yourself as a new employee or as a new graduate student. The temptation to overwork will be great. However, it can have ethical implications, especially if you work in the psychology field. The stress you face may impair your effectiveness, leading to ethical ramifications (Barnett, Baker, Elman, & Schoener, 2007).

Tasks

Using the Argosy University online library resources, research work–life balance. You may want to use some or all of the following search terms: work–life balance, job satisfaction, burnout, weisure, overworked, and self-care.

  • Select at least one authoritative article from the library and provide a summary. Focus on the effects of work–life imbalance and the benefits of work–life balance.
  • Describe your own experience with attempting to achieve a work–life balance.
    • What have you done that has improved this balance?
    • What have you done that has worsened it?
    • How do you think your situation will change upon graduating from college?
    • Will you experience more or less difficulty in achieving this balance? Why?
  • Discuss any ethical ramifications of failure to take proper care of yourself while working in the field of psychology. Identify at least one ethical standard from the American Counseling Association (ACA) Code of Ethics and one standard from the APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct that apply, providing the specific standards’ numbers and titles.
  • Be sure to cite your sources.
 

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How do peer and social relationships affect an individual’s behavior, activities, and emotions?

The Social and Behavioral Socialization Outcomes

Using the University Library, search for an article that supports your work. You can find peer-reviewed resources in the Library under the PsycARTICLES database. This will also help to broaden your understanding of the topic being studied each week.

How do peer and social relationships affect an individual’s behavior, activities, and emotions? Include in your discussion the feeling, reasoning, and behavioral dimensions that could reinforce or discourage a pattern of aggressive behavior such as bullying or rampage. Minimum 400 words including references from:  Berns, R. M. (2013). Child, family, school, community: Socialization and support (9th ed.).

 

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Discuss the mental health     treatment issues involved in working with the aging client

Write a paper of 500-750 words, in which you evaluate   your opinions and beliefs regarding older adults and address the following:

  1. Describe stereotypes about the elderly that are prevalent in     society, and how those stereotypes affect your personal beliefs     concerning the elderly.
  2. Describe the physical and cognitive     issues involved in aging.
  3. Discuss the mental health     treatment issues involved in working with the aging client. Include     end-of-life considerations in your discussion.

Include at least two scholarly references in   addition to the textbook in your paper.

Textbook1. Human Sexuality in a Changing World 

Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J. S., & Fichner-Rathus, L.     (2017). Human sexuality in a changing world (10th   ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN-13: 9780134525068.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines   found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.   An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric   prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the   expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin. Please refer   to the directions in the Student Success Center.

 

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would you use inferential or descriptive statistics and why?

 Assignment 3: Research Design Questions

Suppose you are a researcher who wants to evaluate which type of course-delivery format (online, blended, or face-to-face) leads to the best performance in a psychological statistics class. In a 2-3 page paper, identify the following:

  • What is your research question? (Please remember to focus your study on the evaluation of the various types of course delivery for statistics courses.)
  • What is your hypothesis (both null and alternate)?
  • Is this a qualitative or quantitative design (based on type of variable collected) and why?
  • Explain if your study would be classified as a descriptive, correlational or experimental design.
  • What would be an example of a variable for this study of course delivery formats that could be measured on a nominal scale? Ordinal scale? Interval scale? Ratio scale?
  • Once you have collected your data on the effectiveness of the various types of course delivery for a statistics course, would you use inferential or descriptive statistics and why?
  • Create a sample frequency distribution for one of the variables. Choose either a simple or grouped frequency distribution and explain your choice.
  •  Write a 2–3-pages in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources. Use
 

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Describe the different roles a consultant can fulfill.

Assignment 3: The Collaborative Role of a Consultant

Each consulting engagement is unique, defined by the needs of the client, the scope of the work, and the role of the consultant. In your readings, consultants are categorized into the roles of experts, facilitators, and pairs of hands. Consultants perform effective roles. However, they can also fall into unsuitable roles. In such instances, the consultant needs to bring the problem to the client’s attention. Ideally, the consultant and the client should work together collaboratively to design, develop, and implement a solution that meets the customer’s needs.

For this assignment, you will discuss the different roles consultants play and explore how you would consult collaboratively. Additionally, you will consider the potential ethical and conflict-of-interest issues possible in this kind of close consulting relationship.

Directions:

Using your textbook and at least two additional scholarly resources from the Argosy University online library resources, research the roles of a consultant and collaborative consulting.

In three to five pages:

  • Describe the different roles a consultant can fulfill.
  • Explain a scenario wherein a consultant ended up in an undesirable role. Identify how the consultant could have changed the outcome to something more positive and productive for the client.
  • Describe the concept of collaborative consulting and its effectiveness.
  • Explain at least two to three ways in which a consultant can maintain integrity and ethical standards when working closely with clients.

Your final product will be in a Microsoft Word document approximately three to five pages in length. You will utilize at least two scholarly sources in your research. Your paper should be written in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrate ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; and display accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

All written assignments and responses should follow APA rules for attributing sources.

Submission Details:

 

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what constitutes good teaching techniques

School Culture Assessment

School Culture Survey School Culture Definition

“School culture is the set of norms, values and beliefs, rituals and ceremonies, symbols and stories that make up the “persona” of the school. These unwritten expectations build up over time as teachers, administrators, parents, and students work together, solve problems, deal with challenges and, at times, cope with failures. For example, every school has a set of expectations about what can be discussed at staff meetings, what constitutes good teaching techniques, how willing the staff is to change, and the importance of staff development.”

Peterson, K. (2002). Positive: A school’s culture is always at work, either helping or hindering adult learning. Here’s how to see it, assess it, and change it for the better. Journal of Staff Development, 23(3), pages 10-14. Retrieved 1/12/09 from http://www.nsdc.org/library/publications/jsd/peterson233.cfm

School Culture Survey

Adapted from: Phillips, G. (1993). The school-classroom culture audit. Vancouver, B.C. Eduserv, British

Columbia School Trustees Publishing. Retrieved 1/12/09 from: http://www.nsdc.org/library/publications/jsd/wagner233.cfm

Instructions: Complete the form and add up your score. As a team, add individual’s total scores and then divide by the number in your team to create an average. Compare the average with the Scoring Guide to determine the cultural “health” of your school.

Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always or almost

always Task

1. Teachers and staff discuss instructional strategies and curriculum issues. 1 2 3 4 5

2. Teachers and staff work together to develop the school schedule. 1 2 3 4 5

3. Teachers and staff are involved in the decision- making process with regard to materials and resources.

1 2 3 4 5

4. The student behavior code is a result of collaboration and consensus among staff. 1 2 3 4 5

5. The planning/organizational time allotted to teachers and staff is used to plan as collective units/teams rather than as separate individuals.

1 2 3 4 5

Teacher & Staff Survey

School Culture Assessment

Process Never Rarely Sometimes Often Always or almost

always 1. When something is not working in our school, the

faculty and staff predict and prevent rather than react and repair.

1 2 3 4 5

2. School members are interdependent and value each other. 1 2 3 4 5

3. Members of our school community seek alternatives to problems/issues rather than repeating what we have always done.

1 2 3 4 5

4. Members of our school community seek to define the problem/issue rather than blame others. 1 2 3 4 5

5. The school staff is empowered to make instructional decisions rather than waiting for supervisors to tell them what to do.

1 2 3 4 5

6. People work here because they enjoy it and choose to be here. 1 2 3 4 5

Relationships

1. Teachers and staff tell stories of celebrations that support the school’s values. 1 2 3 4 5

2. Teachers and staff visit/talk/meet outside of the school to enjoy each others’ company. 1 2 3 4 5

3. Our school reflects a true “sense” of community. 1 2 3 4 5 4. Our schedule reflects frequent communication

opportunities for teachers and staff. 1 2 3 4 5

5. Our school supports and appreciates sharing of new ideas by members of our school. 1 2 3 4 5

6. There is a rich and robust tradition of rituals and celebrations, including holidays, special events, and recognition of goal attainment.

1 2 3 4 5

Subtotals

Total =

Scoring Guide: The lowest assessment score is 17 and the highest score is 85.

17-40 = Critical and immediate attention necessary. 41-60 = Modifications and improvements are necessary. 61-75 = Monitor and continue to make positive adjustments. 76-85 = Amazing! No one has ever scored higher than 75!

 

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What developmental changes (or perhaps stages, i.e. Erikson or Maslow) might be mistaken for a midlife crisis?

After completing the readings in Unit 6 and further researching the topic, post a two-paragraph response to the following:

Is there such a thing as a midlife crisis? Discuss the idea of a midlife crisis in terms of the physical, cognitive, and psychosocial changes in middle adulthood. Also:

  • If you believe there is such a thing as a midlife crisis, what developmental changes in middle adulthood might be the cause? Why do some middle-aged people experience it and others do not?
  • If you do not believe that a midlife crisis exists, explain why you think this myth perpetuates in our society. What developmental changes (or perhaps stages, i.e. Erikson or Maslow) might be mistaken for a midlife crisis?

Please make sure that your discussion comments abide by the Netiquette policy outlined in the syllabus.

  • attachment

    LifespanDevelopment.pdf
  • attachment

    Unit6Introduction.html.zip
 

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